Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Many people lose their lives to CVD every year.
In fact, it is the number one cause of death for both men and women in the USA. In our country, when we look at the 2017 Cause of Death Statistics of the Turkish Statistical Institute, it is seen that circulatory system diseases rank first.
Smoking-alcohol use, unbalanced and malnutrition increase the risk of CVD. Looking at the basis of cardiovascular diseases, it has been observed that there is a very close relationship between nutrition and CVD.
Nutrition is important for improving mortality and morbidity in these patient groups. Adequate and balanced nutrition and medical nutrition therapy play a major role in the prevention and treatment of CVD.
Cardiovascular diseases -Hypertension
-Ischemic Heart Disease -Atherosclerosis -Cerebrovascular Diseases -Dyslipidemias
-Heart failure -Transplantation
2-Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Diseases
Inadequate and unbalanced diet
Atherosclerosis is a risk factor for CVD, especially coronary heart disease. A healthy diet is important for maintaining blood lipid profile, blood pressure and ideal body weight.
Consuming high amounts of saturated fatty acids increases LDL cholesterol levels and the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio.
Replacing saturated fatty acid intake with polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing fats also reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduce the risk of CVD. Mackerel, trout and herring are rich in EPA and DHA.
A high-fiber diet has been associated with lower CVD risk. Pulp reduces the absorption of cholesterol from the small intestine, thereby lowering total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.
High salt consumption poses a threat to CVD, especially hypertension (HT). WHO has set salt consumption at 5 g/day.
Vegetables and fruits should be consumed due to their antioxidant, functional components and high fiber content. In addition, according to studies, consumption of vegetables and fruits are nutrients that help reduce the risk of CVD.
It is observed that individuals with a family history of CVD have a higher risk of CVD in the future.
In addition, studies suggest that diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia may also be genetically based.
According to studies, approximately 10% of CVD is reported in smokers. Not only smoking but also exposure to cigarettes increases the risk of disease.
Many substances in cigarette smoke damage lipoproteins, increase oxidation and reduce blood oxygen carrying capacity.
Cardiovascular risk is directly proportional to increased blood glucose levels. In addition, abnormal blood glucose levels can lead to high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride (TG) levels.
It has been pointed out that having blood glucose levels in the ideal range reduces these risks.
*First of all, a healthy lifestyle should be adopted.
*Tobacco use must be stopped.
*Moderate intensity exercise should be done for at least 150 minutes a week.
*Overweight individuals should consult a nutritionist to ensure body weight loss.
*Consumption of vegetables, fruits, vegetable or animal protein and fish should be included in the nutrition program.
*Consumption of processed meat, trans fats, refined carbohydrates, sugar-added packaged foods should be avoided.
*Food diversity should be given importance in the nutrition program.
*Extra salt added to the food consumed should be reduced and kept below 5 grams per day.