Obesity is a chronic condition characterized by a higher than normal body fat mass and its prevalence is increasing worldwide.
Risk factors for obesity include unbalanced diet, insufficient physical activity, genetic factors, sleep disorders and endocrine disorders.

Obesity is a metabolically unhealthy process and affects many organs in the human body. It can also lead to diabetes, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis, gall bladder diseases.

Obesity can be treated with diet and exercise. However, in individuals with a high risk of developing advanced complications, bariatric surgery such as gastric sleeve, gastric bypass, gastric balloon, gastric botox can be applied with the recommendations of the physician.
These methods are called bariatric surgery applications.

The most commonly used calculation in the evaluation of obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI) (Table-1). BMI is obtained by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of the height in meters. According to this result, an individual over 30 is called obese and an individual over 40 is called morbidly obese.


The most obvious cause of obesity is unbalanced energy intake and expenditure. Accordingly, excess energy is stored as fat. Studies have shown a positive correlation between a high fat diet and obesity. Similarly, consuming simple carbohydrates, skipping meals, eating fast food, excessive alcohol consumption, snacking between meals, frying and pastry consumption also lead to an increase in body weight.

According to a study conducted in the United States of America (USA), there has been an extra 600 kcal increase in daily energy intake in the last 40 years. This increase also explains the increasing obesity rates in the USA.

Chemical Environment:

Individuals are exposed to polluted air, water and soil resulting from uncontrolled industrial production. Therefore, the chemicals to which the individual is exposed affect the digestive system. There is a relationship especially between heavy metals and obesity.

During the production of packaged foods, bisphenol A and phytates in the structure of plastic pass into food. These substances are associated with disruptions in lipid metabolism, changes in appetite and obesity.

Genetic Factors:

Genetic factors are highly effective in the development of obesity. The relationship between obesity and genetics was first proposed in 1962 with the ‘Trifty Gene Hypothesis’. Type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are very common in Pima Indians, have been observed that the genetics of the natives have changed due to the difficulty in accessing food in some periods and that the body tends to store nutrients as a result of increased consumption during the period when food is abundant.


There are different types of stress and some of them can cause obesity. Emotional stress is the most common type of stress. Body weight gain of 10%-20% has been detected in some patients with depression. Weight gain has also been observed in individuals diagnosed with seasonal depression. This type of depression is especially seen in northern countries that cannot benefit from sunlight enough in winter.

Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases:

Endocrine disorders often cause obesity. Cushing’s Syndrome, a disease characterized by increased endogenous glucocorticoids, is the most common cause of endocrine obesity.
In these patients, a body weight gain of approximately 25-50 kg has been observed with glucocorticoid treatment.

However, rather than causing obesity, hypothyroidism creates resistance to body weight loss.
This condition can be eliminated with appropriate drug treatment and nutrition program.


Prevention strategies are as important as treatment strategies for the solution of the increasing prevalence of obesity. Changing environmental conditions, dietary habits and inadequate physical activity are among the preventable factors that cause obesity development.

-Create a nutrition program under the control of a nutritionist.

-Give importance to regular physical activity.

-Prefer organic, handmade products instead of ready-made foods.

-Include fruits and vegetables in your diet.

-Avoid fried foods and pastries.

-Prefer water and sugar-free drinks, avoid carbonated and sugary drinks.

Choose low-fat cheese and yogurt.

-Avoid fast-food style nutrition.

-Pay attention to daily water consumption.

-Take care to consume healthy fats.